Toxemia of pregnancy

Toxemia of pregnancyToxemia of pregnancy occur during pregnancy and usually stop after graduation. There are numerous theories explaining the development of allergic, toxic, immunological, neuroregulatory, humoral and others). Conventionally, the toxicosis is divided into early and late. The most frequent clinical form of early toxicity - vomiting of pregnancy. Less common are drowsiness, dermatitis, bronchial asthma, jaundice of pregnancy. Late toxicosis include hydrocele pregnant, nephropathy, preeclampsia, eclampsia. Vomiting of pregnancy is often observed on the background of salivating, accompanied by nausea, loss of appetite, change in taste sensation. A mild form does not reflect negatively on the overall state of the pregnant woman. When toxicosis moderate marked weakness, weight loss, decreased urine output, loss of appetite. The most severe form of toxemia - uncontrollable vomiting. Vomiting occurs more than 20 times a day, often regardless of the meal. Pregnant dramatically lose weight, blood pressure decrease, such as rapid heart beat, increased body temperature, it marked dehydration, the urine is acetone. There is a danger for the life of the patient. In these cases it is necessary to terminate the pregnancy. Dropsy pregnant is characterized by swelling, negative urine output, rapid increase of body weight of the pregnant woman (more than 300 g per week). In the urine abnormal items are missing, HELL not increased. Short or long. Some pregnant women the disease progresses and becomes nephropathy. The diagnosis is based on the detection in the second half of pregnancy edema not associated with extragenital diseases. Hidden swelling can be detected by systematic weighing of pregnant women's consultations (1 every 2 weeks). Nephropathy often develops on the background of dropsy or previous extragenital diseases (hypertension, nephritis), such forms of toxicosis called combined. Characterized by a triad of symptoms: edema, hypertension, proteinuria. Often only two symptom in any combination or one of them (monosymptomatic toxicosis). May cause cerebral symptoms. In severe possible transition in the pre-eclampsia and eclampsia. Nephropathy has an adverse effect on the fetus (malnutrition, fetal death). Pre-eclampsia is characterized by the appearance on the background of previous nephropathy complaints of severe headache, vision problems, pain in the epigastric region. Treatment is similar to treatment of severe forms of nephropathy. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures with loss of consciousness. Most often occurs on the background of severe nephropathy or pre-eclampsia. The fit of convulsions develops in a certain sequence: stage I - appear fine fibrillar contraction of the muscles of the face in the transition to the upper limb; stage II - tonic convulsions of the muscles of the entire skeletal muscles; the patient loses consciousness, the breath is absent, pupils dilated, cyanosis of skin and mucous membranes; III stage - clonic convulsions of the muscles of the body, then the upper and lower extremities; appears irregular breathing, the mouth is the foam; stage IV - comatose state. Now for eclampsia is characterized by a small number of attacks that occur against the background of relatively mild forms of nephropathy or pre-eclampsia. Complications of eclampsia: the fall of the heart activity, brain hemorrhage, pulmonary edema; intrauterine hypoxia, intrauterine death of the fetus. Prevention of late abortion is carried out in antenatal clinics (health education of pregnant women, fizioterapevticheskaya preparation and so on). A greater role for the early detection of toxaemia of pregnancy..

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